[90], Scutellarin is able to suppress adipocyte differentiation at 100μM (but not 50μM) associated with downregulation of adipogenic transcription factors (PPARγ and C/EBPα, no influence on C/EBPβ) and upregulation of PPARα and no influence on PPARδ. This species is native to Korea, China, Japan, Mongolia, and Russia. [19], Baicalin appears to involve intestinal microflora for its metabolism into baicalein (via removal of the glucuronide group), as decreasing intestinal microflora alters the kinetics of the flavonoid. Few adverse reactions have been reported. Available for Android and iOS devices. followed by specifically-applicable references. The team includes nutrition researchers, registered dietitians, physicians, and pharmacists. Specifically, the extract reduced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha-induced COX-2 expression by reducing the histopathological severity as well as the expression of COX-2, TNF-alpha, and interleukin-1beta.17 In a murine model, a Chinese formula containing S. baicalensis, Paeonia lactiflora, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, and Ziziphus jujube was similarly effective as compared with salicylazosulfapyridine in mice induced with colitis, resulting in improved colonic swelling and redness, and increased weight.18, In a study of 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced contact dermatitis in BALB/c mice, topical application of an aqueous extract of S. baicalensis suppressed dermatitis by reducing the production of inflammatory cytokines (ie, IL-4, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha). Anti-inflammatory effects of Baikal skullcap are well documented. Examine.com is intended to be used for educational and information purposes only. Scutellaria barbata is a perennial herb that is used along with other botanicals in traditional Chinese medicine to treat bacterial infections, hepatitis, and tumors. [22], Administration of the plant material as a decotion at 8mL/kg (baicalin at 21.1mg/mL, wogonoside at 1.88mg/mL, baicalein at 9.72mg/mL, wogonin at 8.22mg/mL, oroxylin A at 0.62mg/mL and chrysin at 0.23mg/mL) followed a bimodal absorption with a peak after 45 minutes (thought to be due to direct absorption) and then a lesser peak at 8-12 hours (possible related to colonic fermentation). for this page. Enzyme prostate acid phosphatase, commonly elevated in prostate cancer, was also decreased by the preparation.31, 32 However, PC-SPES was recalled and withdrawn from the market in February 2002 because certain batches were contaminated with US Food and Drug Administration–controlled prescription drugs. However, baicalein exerted weaker anticoagulant activities when compared with warfarin and heparin.58. 4 Physical and Chemicals Properties Scutellaria Baicalensis Root Extract [3], Scutellaria baicalensis (400mg/kg of 29.6% baicalin) in combination with the anti-diabetic drug Metformin (500mg/kg) in diabetic rats noted that all three groups (either drug in isolation plus the combination) were equally effective in reducing blood glucose and triglycerides over four weeks although they appeared to be additive in increasing pancreatic insulin concentrations and antioxidant status. NCBI BLAST name: eudicots Rank: species Genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard) Mitochondrial genetic code: Translation table 1 (Standard) Plastid genetic code: Translation table 11 (Bacterial, Archaeal and Plant Plastid) Other names: common name… Scutellaria lateriflora is a PERENNIAL growing to 0.6 m (2ft) by 0.4 m (1ft 4in). Suppression of migration occurred with baicalein treated through its ability to inhibit matrix metalloproteinases 2 and 9. If using any pharmaceuticals or drugs given to you by a doctor or received with a prescription, you must consult with the doctor in question or an equally qualified Health Care Professional prior to using any nutritional supplementation. [21], Administration of isolated flavonoids at 5mg/kg noted relatively quick absorption and peaks values, with Tmax values being measured at 5.00m (baicalin), 12.0+/-10.4m (wogonin), and 4.33+/-1.15m (oroxylin A) and reaching respectively Cmax values of 1.10+/-0.49µg/mL (baicalin), 0.57+/-0.14µg/mL (wogonin), and 0.24+/-0.08µg/mL (oroxylin A). This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. roots used in treatment of disorders of the respiratory and digestive system); Ornamental. PHA-activated PBMCs are significantly suppressed to near undetectable levels (1.9% of control) with 50-200µg/mL of the ethanolic extract. It has lancet-shaped leaves, purple-blue flowers, and black-brown, egg-shaped nutlets. It is listed in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia and is prescribed to patients as an anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and anti-thrombic agent (Shang et al. [22], Administration of a mixture of flavonoids sees oroxylin A have an increase in overall AUC by 170% while the AUC values for baicalin and wogonin decrease by 24% and 11.6%. Examine.com and its Editors do not advocate nutritional supplementation over proper medical advice or treatment and this sentiment will never be expressed through pages hosted under Examine.com. Scientific Name(s): Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi.Common Name(s): Baical skullcap, Chinese skullcap, Golden root, Huang chin, Huang lien, Huang-qin, Hwang-keum, Hwanggum, Koganebana, Senohgon, Whang-geum, Wogon. Scutellaria serrata. [91] Wogonin has been found to also activate PPARα as well as AMPK.[38]. The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Bees, flies. It appears to be a good source for flavonoid compounds, and some components are quite potent. Wogonoside was found to be inactive.21 An extract of the plant also demonstrated protective action against oxidation induced by ultraviolet light, suggesting potential use against certain skin diseases.22 Another study found that flavonoid baicalein inhibited lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes.23 Studies also found that baicalein and baicalin scavenged hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion, and other free radicals in a dose-dependent manner,4 and that baicalein directly scavenged superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals in cardiomyocytes.24 Flavonoids wogonin and wogonoside demonstrated subtle effects on these radicals, but did inhibit nitric oxide production, along with water extract of the plant.4, 25, 26 Results also showed that ganhuangenin isolated from S. baicalensis had greater antioxidant potency than alpha-tocopherol.27. This is since AMPK activation is inhernetly hypoglycemic[30] and the molecular target of many anti-diabetic compounds (Metformin and Berberine in particular). [71] Wogonin is also able to suppress microglia activation, although via suppressing NF-kB at 50µM. ; S. macrantha Fisch. The team includes nutrition researchers, registered Scutellaria baicalensis, with the common name Baikal skullcap or Chinese skullcap, is a species of flowering plant in the family Lamiaceae. There is no clinical data regarding the use of Baikal skullcap as an antioxidant. This product may be unsafe when used before surgery or other medical procedures. Other Common Names: Huang qin, baikal, baical skullcap root, scute, scutellaria. Scutellaria baicalensis is used in traditional medicine to treat many medical conditions, but studies in humans are limited. Become an Examine Personalized member to get access to all of the latest nutrition research: Scutellaria baicalensis (of the Labiatae family) is a plant sometimes referred to as Huang qin or Scutellariae radix (when referring to the root) and has usage in Traditional chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of cardiovascular disease,[1] bleeding disorders (hematemesis, hematuria, and metrorrhagia),[2], The related plant, Scutellaria lateriflora, is commonly referred to as Skullcap; this term is sometimes also applied to Scutellaria baicalensis along with the names 'Golden Root' (this name also applies to Rhodiola Rosea by pure chance). [26], Baicalein does not appear to undergo any hydroxylation of phase I metabolism in liver or intestinal microsomes. We have a strict editorial process. [53][53], Due to the above mechanisms, oroxylin A has been noted to stimulate neurogenesis in the hippocampus in a dose-dependent manner when administrated for 7-14 days to otherwise normal mice (5-10mg/kg), with 5mg/kg performing equally to 10mg/kg and 14 days not outperforming 7 days.[54]. These uses have been supported by clinical trials. [86], An ethanolic extract of Scutellaria baicalensis is able to induce relaxation in the corpus cavernosum in a concentration dependent manner reaching 89.85+/-9.97% relaxation at 300µg/mL. The genus Scutellaria is well characterized by the calyx, which in all the species consists of 2 round lips closed in fruit, the upper lip of which has a helmet-shaped appendage, giving to it the appearance of a mask or cap; hence the common name scullcap. [82], Baicalein has shown anxiolytic properties in a rat conflict test due to binding to the benzodiazepine binding site of the GABAA receptor[83]. A case series reported 4 cases of liver injury due to flavocoxid (250 to 500 mg twice per day) for the treatment of osteoarthritis in women between 57 and 68 years of age. There is no clinical data regarding the use of Baikal skullcap for neuroprotective effects. Each member of our research team is required to have no conflicts of interest, including with supplement In a murine model, the addition of garlic to S. baicalensis was associated with a reduced area under the curve and time to maximum plasma concentration.75, Few adverse reactions have been reported. [2], Isolated compounds from this plant have inhibited LPS-induced macrophage activation, including baicalein (66.4+/-1µM), wogonin (45.3+/-0.2µM), and oroxylin A (58.2+/-0.6µM)[3] with the latter also effective in other tissues via inhibition of NF-kB[92][93] to near control levels in the range of 5-20µg/mL oroxylin A. Baicalin exhibited hepatoprotective actions in rats as well.64 Other uses of Baikal skullcap preparations include treatment of neonatal jaundice,65 marked antiulcerogenic actions,66 sores, swelling, boils, and diabetic problems.2, An in vitro study reported weak estrogenic activity associated with S. baicalensis.67, Five flavonoids derived from S. baicalensis were found to inhibit alpha-glucosidase activity in vitro. Pronunciation of Scutellaria baicalensis with 1 audio pronunciation, 1 meaning, 3 translations and more for Scutellaria baicalensis. Lamiaceae Chinese skullcap Baikal skullcap, scute Scutellaria galericulata L. Cassida galericulata (L.) Scop. Subscribe to Drugs.com newsletters for the latest medication news, new drug approvals, alerts and updates. Estimates of the number of species in the genus range from around 300 to about 350 or 360 to 425. In a study of mice, administration of an aqueous extract of S. baicalensis root up to 32 g/kg/day did not result in fetal malformation. Baicalin (the glycoside) has been found to preserve the levels of hepatic AMPK when given intraperitoneally at 80mg/kg, which was credited to abolishing the weight gain on a high-fat diet (the high fat diet was able to reduce AMPK phosphorylation). This information does not endorse this product as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patient or health condition. Sunny, grassy slopes and waste ground from 100 - 2,000 metres above sea level[254]. Common Name: Baikal Skullcap: Latin Name: Scutellaria baicalensis: Grown: Certified Organically Grown (OG) Form: Fresh root: Origin: Our farm: Availabilty: Call in Summer A flavonoid compound from S. baicalensis inhibited T-cell leukemia virus type Ι (HTLV-Ι). Baikal skullcap is also used in Chinese herbal medicine for inflammation, allergies, dermatitis, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis.2, 3. Showy Skullcap is a perennial wildflower in the mint family that can be found growing in dry, rich open woods, thickets or clearings, typically on west-facing slopes. [102] It appears that baicalin can directly bind to α-Hemolysin in the latter's binding cavity which interfers with its ability to bind to cells, and may extend to wogonin (IC50 of 10.27μg/mL) but not scutellarin. [9], The aforementioned optimal conditions have been noted to reduce the glycosides (to 1/70th and 1/13th for baicalin and wogonoside) while increasing levels of the aglycones by 3.5-fold (baicalein) and 3.1-fold (wogonin), due to removing the glucuronide attached to the aglycone. Baikal skullcap (scientific name Scutellaria baicalensis) is a plant. During the 19th century, the common name used in America was “mad dog.” Other popular names include scullcap, hoodwort, quaker bonnet, helmet flower, European skullcap, greater skullcap, American skullcap, blue skullcap, blue pimpernel, hoodwart, hooded willow … Research reveals no clinical data regarding the use of Baikal skullcap for cardiovascular effects. An 8-year-old male with a 2-year history of psoriasis was originally responsive to traditional therapies; however, his symptoms worsened with continued therapy. The dried root is used in traditional Chinese medicine. Baicalein appears to be a GABAA receptor agonist, with the glycoside (Baicalin) having no such effect. Baicalein also reduced the formation of tumors associated with inflammation.38, Cell viability of peripheral blood leukocytes obtained from children with acute lymphocytic leukemia was reduced with the use of a S. baicalensis extract.39, S. baicalensis administered to lung cancer patients improved certain immunoglobulins.40 Another report investigated the effects of the components of a Japanese herbal medicine Sho-saiko-to (TJ-9) on IL-12 production in the adherent cell (monocyte/macrophage) fraction and in the nonadhered cell (lymphocyte) fraction of peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from liver cirrhosis patients and healthy subjects. [15] This is inhibited by nitric oxide and cGMP inhibitors, and is involved with potassium channels (regulator of blood flow in this tissue[104] as channel openers cause relaxation[105]) but independent of muscarininc and adrenergic receptors.[15]. [22] While oroxylin A had a quick half-life (38.8m), the other two were more delayed (102-155m). [91] Scutellarin was found to bind to PPARα, although its affinity was not determined. Examine.com does not assume liability for any actions undertaken after visiting these pages, and does not assume liability if one misuses supplements. [102], An ethanolic extract of scutellaria baicalensis (5.7% baicalin) given to rats 48 hours prior to an allergic challenge (compound 48/80) at 280mg/kg bodyweight was able to exert a mild antiallergic action relative to control (about 6.6%)[103] despite stronger actions in vitro where 1-100μg/mL caused a near halving of histamine release with most potency at 10μg/mL. (Lamiaceae) is a plant of the genus Lamiaceae, and its root is the main part used as a medicine. manufacturers, food companies, and industry funders. Intraperitoneal injections of 80mg/kg baicalein daily for 16 weeks was able to inhibit the fat gain caused by a high-fat diet in rats, which is thought to be secondary to AMPK activation in the liver. Baicalin has been shown to stimulate nitric oxide production in isolated HUVECs (endothelial cells) via activating eNOS in the range of 50-200nM with 50nM outperforming 10nM bradykinin (comparator). [103], An injection of 20mg/kg isolated wogonin appears to be more effective at reducing carrageenaan-induced paw edema (82.9%) than ibuprofen. Baikal skullcap (scientific name Scutellaria baicalensis) is a plant. We have a strict editorial process. Dictionary Collections Challenges Community Contribute ... common name baical skullcap is a flowering plant. [72], Reductions in microglia activation and the subsequent inflammation have been noted in vivo when rats are fed 100mg/kg of the extract daily during chronic LPS-injections. Wogonin is also a GABAA agonist[44] with a Ki of 2.03+/-0.24µM at the benzodiazepine binding site.[41]. Because of its potential effects as an antioxidant, Baikal skullcap also has been studied in immunology and cancer research. Pages in category "Scutellaria baicalensis" This category contains only the following page. Click here to see the full set of references Baicalein induced apoptosis of these colorectal cancer cells. Baikal Skullcap. [22] It has been noted elsewhere (baicalin in isolation) that maximal rate of metabolism was at 10µM with higher concentrations having a lower rate, suggesting a saturation point. Major phytochemicals found in S. baicalensis include flavonoids, glycosides, and their glucoronides.1 Flavonoids present in S. baicalensis include baicalin, baicalein, wogonin, and wogonoside.2, 4 Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography determination of flavonoids from S. baicalensis root has been reported.5 Flavone synthases Ι and ΙΙ, chrysin, wogonin, apigenin, salvigenin, scutellarein, and isoscutellarein were among flavonoid constituents also found in S. baicalensis leaf parts.6 Flavones baicalein, oroxylin, and skullcapflavone ΙΙ also were identified.7 Other reports confirmed similar flavonoid content.8, 9 One report described melatonin in certain plant samples.10 Other compounds include sterols and benzoic acid.2 The North American species, S. laterifolia differs in chemical constituents. This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this product. In a phase 1 study of healthy volunteers, baicalein 100 to 2,800 mg was not associated with hepatic or kidney toxicity. This page is regularly updated, to include the most recently available clinical trial evidence. [61], Microglia are neuronal support cells involved in the immune system that are able to become 'activated' via inflammatory signals[65] and this inflammation is thought to at least contribute towards cognitive decline such as Parkinson's,[66] Alzheimer's,[67] and multiple sclerosis[68] due to the neurotoxicity associated with chronic activation. Grass slope or forest edge at an altitude of 60-1300 meters for this page to! To see the full set of research information and references for Scutellaria.! ( loamy ) and heavy ( clay ) soils 4 Physical and Chemicals Scutellaria! Range: E. Asia - China, Japan, Korea, China, Japan, Mongolia vitro studies suggest scutellaria baicalensis common name. 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